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 human-machine communication,” Proc. of the IEEE 88, 1142- 1165. Ladefoged, P., Ladefoged, J., Turk, A., Hind, K., and Skilton, S. J. (1998). “Phonetic Structures of Scottish Gaelic,” J. Phonetics 28, 1–41. Ladefoged, P., and Maddieson, I. (1996). The Sounds of the World’s Languages. (Blackwell, Oxford, UK; Cambridge, MA) . Lewis, M. P. (Ed.). (2009). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. (SIL International, Dallas). Maddieson, I. (1984). Patterns of Sounds (Cambridge University Press, New York). Maddieson, I., Smith, C. L., and Bessell, N. (2001). “Aspects of the phonetics of Tlingit,” Anthropological Linguistics 43, 135–176. McDonough, J., Ladefoged, P., and George, H. (1993). “Navajo vow- els and phonetic universal tendencies,” UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 84, 143–164. McGurk, H., and MacDonald, J. (1976). “Hearing lips and seeing voices,” Nature 264, 746–748. Muller, J. S. (2001). “The phonology and phonetics of word-initial geminates,” unpublished Ph.D. thesis, The Ohio State University. Nellis, D. G., and Hollenbach, B. E. (1980). “Fortis versus Lenis in  Cajonos Zapotec Phonology,” Intl. J. Am. Linguistics 46, 92–105. Shaw, P. A. (1991). “Consonant harmony systems: The special status of coronal harmony,” in C. Paradis and J.-F. Prunet (Eds.), Phonetics and Phonology 2: The Special Status of Coronals (pp. 125–157) (Academic Press, San Diego). Silverman, D., Blankenship, B., Kirk, P., and Ladefoged, P. (1995). “Phonetic structures in Jalapa Mazatec,” Anthropological Linguistics 37, 70–88. Stone, M. L., and Lundberg, A. (1996). “Three-dimensional tongue surface shapes of English consonants and vowels,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 3728–3737. Taff, A., Rozelle, L., Cho, T., Ladefoged, P., Dirks, M., and Wegelin, J. (2001). “Phonetic structures of Aleut,” J. Phonetics 29, 231–271. Westbury, J. R., and Keating, P. A. (1986). “On the naturalness of stop consonant voicing,” J. Linguistics 22, 145–166. Whalen, D. H., Shaw, P. A., Noiray, A., and Antony, R. (2011). “Analogs of Tahltan consonant harmony in English CVC sylla- bles,” in W.-S. Lee and E. Zee (Eds.), Proc. of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 2129–2132). (City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.)    Christian T. DiCanio is a research asso- ciate at Haskins Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. in Linguistics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 2008. Prior to his employment at Haskins, he was a Fyssen Foundation postdoctoral fellow at Université Lumière in Lyon, France. His research encompasses both descriptive phonetic work on endangered languages and experimental work in speech produc- tion and perception. He has done field work on a variety of endangered lan- guages in Mexico, including Trique, Ixcatec, and Mixtec. Apart from his descriptive linguistic work, his areas of research include tone perception, voice quality perception, voice quality pro- duction, and the coarticulatory dynam- ics of tone. Together with colleagues at Haskins Labs, he is investigating how automatic speech recognition software can be used to align text to speech in corpus data from different endangered languages. Patricia A. Shaw received her Ph.D. in Linguistics from the University of Toronto, and is the Founder and Chair of the First Nations Languages Program at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, BC, where she provides training for language documentation and revitalization and engages in research on and teaching of Kwak'wala, Musqueam and Cree. She has worked in close collaboration with several critical- ly endangered language communities (Salish, Wakashan, Siouan, Athapaskan, Tsimshian) to record and analyze extant grammatical knowledge, to teach research skills and archiving method- ologies, and to develop pedagogical materials for language revitalization. She is currently President of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas (SSILA), an organization that brings linguists and community members together to work on languages of North, Central, and South America. D. H. Whalen received his B.A. from Rice University and his Ph.D. from Yale University. He is currently Distinguished Professor of Speech- Language-Hearing Sciences at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. He also serves as Vice President of Research at Haskins Laboratories, a private non-profit research institute in New Haven, CT. He is Founder and President of the Endangered Language Fund, a nonprof- it organization dedicated to the descrip- tion and revitalization of languages at risk of falling silent. You can learn more at He is a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America. 42 Acoustics Today, October 2011 

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