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majority of marine taxa (e.g., fish, invertebrates) that sense this component of sound (Hawkins and Popper, 2017). This gap exists because historically instrumentation to measure particle motion in the open ocean has not been readily ac- cessible to the research community. As new technology becomes available to measure this parameter of the sound field underwater, we expect exciting advances in underwater soundscape insight and applications.
The final and arguably the most important open challenge associated with ocean soundscapes is how best to compre- hend acoustic measurements and models in six dimensions. The interdisciplinary nature of soundscape research must again expand to embrace computer scientists, cognitive psy- chologists, and internet technology experts to advance the perception of underwater soundscapes beyond the compart- mentalized visual imaging of single- or two-dimensional soundscape images to encompass innovative combinations of visual and auditory representation to fully capture the soundscape complexity in a way we can best perceive.
We thank Arthur Popper for his invaluable comments and feedback on the drafts of this paper. Jennifer L. Miksis-Olds was funded by Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Con- tract ADEON M16PC00003.
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