Page 34 - Winter Issue 2018
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Figure 3. Diagram of auditory localization
pm . / you experiment conducted in situ within the
“WW --~~. ’ ancient architecture at the UNESCO World
/ i / Heritage archaeological site at Chavin de
ns.\\\ ~Fi’.W ma’ Huantar, Peru. Shown are sound stimulus
\\ L (six loudspeakers; “SOURCE”) and par-
.,,,5,\\ \\\ ': i, />052 Em ticipant (eight human figures; “POS”) loca-
\ \\ 5’ / 7 ' A;/V tions within the interior space known as the
"is 7\\\-\_/ ‘AL ’  “Dolzle Me’nsula (double—corl2el) Gallery,”
4’ .\ Q V g // I S°""“' drawn to scale as shown by 1.68—meter hu-
w5v5\\V;%+[ [‘ p ’ /' / r man figures. Directionality of calibrated 4-
,E:-\ - . 7 I 7 Wm‘ inch single—driver loudspeakers and partici-
//J:  1', ,‘, // pant—facing directions as drawn. Illustration
mm ‘L ‘s. 1“ " {L / swan by Jose’ L. Cruzado Coronel (Kolar, 2013).
/luv .,i i ii! I” 7//;’///‘X,
// .
.....-/ /////l ’ i. ii iii‘? A
L J ,. '
eled sound source. If archaeological sound must be recon- Archaeoacoustical Interpretation in
structed to be observed, is archaeoacoustics, therefore, a AIC11-'i£'010giC-‘£1 Research
purely interpretative practice? Reconstruction and interpre- Archaeoacoustics produces assessments of the dynamical
tation, although related, are not the same. The interpretative Potential of archaeological materials, to support broader ar-
aspects of archaeoacoustical reconstruction depend on the chaeological interpretation. The fieldwork and conservation
way in which sound is produced as well as the choices of program led by John Rick at the 3,()()()-year-old UNESCO
source and receiver locations that reenact human perspec- World Heritage site at Chavin de Huantar, Per1'1, has invit-
tiV€s for Contextual sollnd transmission. ed and included archaeoacoustical collaboration since our
Archaeoacoustical measurements made by exciting spatial Project was formed at Siaiifoid University in 2007' Figure
or instrumental acoustics using an impulse (approximating 4 shows several archaeoacoustical techniques employed in
a Dirac function) or a robust method for generating a Spatial research at this well-preserved ceremonial complex that oc-
impulse response’ Such as the repeated exponential Sipusop cupies about 14 hectares. In this research, converging forms
dal Sweep technique developed and refined by Farina (2007), of material cultural evidence support understandings of
reveal archaeological acoustical features rather than recon- aiicieiii Communication (K°iai’ 2017)’ iiiciiidiiig data from
Struct Specific SpupdS_ The impulse response can be thought acoustical measurements of both site-excavated conch shell
of as a “spatial identifier,” a composite acoustical feature iidms (cook ‘ii iii" zoiol and die weii'PieSeived Si°iie'aiid'
set that reveals how the physical constituents of a space or eaiiiiieiidiioiiai aiciiiieciiiid Ai Ciiaviii’ iiie diiiy Sound"
instrument affect Sound propagation. In Contrast) humap_ producing instruments, either represented graphically (see
performed acoustical test sounds, via artifact or replica in- Figure 5) iii Siie excavated (See Figure 1)’ are the iiciiaviii
Strumepts’ are more interpretative) although the Choice of pututus,” marine shell horns made from the eastern Pacific
particular instruments and the ways of playing them can be giant conch Strombus Lobatus galeatus. Because no written
aligned with archaeological evidence. Reconstructive mod- iexis are known iidiii Ciiaviii’ we can diiiy iiiiiei from mate"
ehpg and aurahzafiop of Spatial and architectural acoustics rial evidence, including extensive use-wear to the shells, that
likewise involve choosing sound sources and many other in- iiiese iiisiiiimeiiis weie performed at the Site‘
terpretative factors related to content, sound-making phys- Pututus may have been performed in many places in and
ics, and listener perspectives. Reconstructive interpretation, around the Chavin ceremonial complex during the 1st cen-
when informed by archaeological evidence, emphasizes the tury BCE. Their performance physics in groups produces
plausible rather than speculative. compelling effects for Chavin’s ritual context, especially
32 | Acuuseics Thday | Winter 2018

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