Page 38 - Winter Issue 2018
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' teristics of high-altitude Andean sites, especially in the late
4 ~ < _  morning through afternoon (Kolar et al., 2018). Theory-
ll‘ ' backed acoustical experimentation thus supports cultural
evidence linking these instruments to political power in
the Andes from the present back to the Inca (approximately
13th to 16th centuries CE) and as early as Chavin (1st mil-
‘ '~ lennium BCE).
 ‘ l‘,___ Arohaeoaoouetlos: Acoustical
v  Science in the Service of Archaeology
‘- Working at a new scientific frontier, archaeoacousticians
Figure 8. Acoustical survey on and around the central platform 1'e5P°n5iVe1Y 3-d3Pt acoustical Science metlmds to "‘“l°hae°'
(“ushnu”) at Inca Huanuco Pampa, Perifi. Photograph courtesy of logical research. An archaeological science, archaeoacous-
Miriam 14- Kolafl tics enables specific characterization of sound—related mat-
  ters and methods for evaluating the extensibility of findings
R. Alan Covey, Andean experimentalist Iosé Cruzado, and from one context to others or generalizing findings to a
I designed and conducted an acoustical survey at the large broader archaeological interpretation. Archaeoacousti-
Inca administrative city Huanuco Pampa. This imperial cal research worldwide has demonstrated the feasibility of
complex, active in the early 16th century, occupies a remote, adapting acoustical theory and methods to diverse archaeo-
high-Andean pampa (plain) 3,800 meters above sea level. logical sites and materials. Archaeoacousticians re-sound
Site architecture is organized around a plaza measuring 550 silent traces of past life, bringing the past into the sensory
X 350 meters (19 hectares) with a raised central platform of presence. This unique combination of science and humani-
32.5 X 48 meters (see Figure 8; Kolar et al., 2018). ties research provides novel opportunities for thinking a.nd
Conch shell horns figure Pm . enfly among smmd_Pm_ : g acroiss disciphnetin AIa:i'1(;:0aCOuStl}(:S connects the
. . . . . . an er ence across eo r .
ducing instruments mentioned in Spanish colonial accounts exp l g g all Y
of the Inca em ire, where the were known as lon -distance
. . P .  . g Acknowledgments
communication devices carried by chasqui messengers. In _ I ,
. , Many thanks to archaeoacoustician David Lubman for the
the acoustical study at Huanuco Pampa, we used a Strombus int _ , h nd f r hi _ _t ti t
. . eri ivn erea o s nerosinvia on o
pututu as one of a sequence of archaeologically appropriate llew g l _ gll ll . _ S
. participate and collaborate in archaeoacoustical discourse
instrument types to cross-compare the eifects of frequency _ , _
. . . ( Arthur Poppers keen edito-
and production mechanism across mapped survey points. To _ _ _ , , I , _

. rial sensibilities greatly enhanced the direction of this text.
provide a standard reference, we employed an electroacous-
tical test signal that is preferred for architectural acoustical

. . References

measurements to produce impulse responses, which we also

gellelllllell lllllllllllllly vlll ll lllllllllllllll Pellcllsslllll lllsllllllllllll Ateina, I. (2014). Musical origins and the stone age evolution of flutes.
(wooden clappers). In the broad Andean plain where Hua- Acoustics T0da},10(3)_ 26_34_

nuco Pampa is located, simultaneously surveying colleagues Blake, E., and Cross, 1. (2015). The acoustic and auditory contexts of human
reported hearing our tests in distant site sectors. Extrapo- B53320: C('24(*):)99';‘11‘¢Inthr0poll:gy 516, 1.lgflpsz//doEpr(g/10.12316/6?i9t1;4S.

. . o , . . usic arc aeoo : onieme o oo ' an eoreti-
lllllng Olll mellsuled sllllllll_ levels over lhll Sllll mall deml cal considerations. Yearbook for Tfdlditional Music 41,g1l-11. Available at
onstrated the hkely audlblhty of Pututus to Its Perlmeters https2// Accessed August 12,2018.
(which extends 1.7 kilometers from the central platform), Campbell. M-. and Kenny. I. (2012). Acoustical andmusicalproperties ofthe
consistent with other data on Pututu Sound transmission. Deskford carnyx reconstruction. Proceedings of the Acoustics 2012 Nantes
P 1 f h d d d, d th th Conference, 11th Cangres Francois dllcouslique 2012 IOA Annual Meet-

Oslsurvey ana Yses 0 t e recor e an 10 suggeste at e ing (Acoustics 2012), Société Fraticaise dlACOLlStlq1l€, Nantes, France, April
particular frequency range of large Andean pututus (Cen- 23-27, 2012, pp. 3961-3966. Available at l1ttps://
tered around 300 Hz), in combination with typical ambient h1l'°031134°/ d°C‘1me“‘- ACCESS“ AUEUS‘ 12- 2013-

- - . - - - Cook, P. R., Abel, I. 5., Kolar, M. A., Huang, P., Huopaniemi, I., Rick, I. W,
llayllllle Clllllllllllllls lll llle llelllllll Andes (lllllll lllllllllllly llllll Chafe, C., and Chowning, I. (2010). Acoustic analysis of the Chavin putti-
moderate temperatures)! makes them Practlca-HY lmmune tns (Strombus galeatus marine shell trumpets). The Iournul of the Acousti-
to wind shear, which is one of the environmental cha.rac- mlsaciety ofAmer1'ca, 128, 2359.

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