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tics on models and corresponding linear systems with over 2 billion degrees of freedom were demonstrated, showing the potential for HPC to enable acoustics solutions that were not previously possible. As future software and hard- ware advances continue to evolve, one can expect HPC to continue to expand the range of acoustics problems that can be solved for realistic engineering applications.
Although the technology has made great strides in recent decades, there is still significant research that is ongo- ing and more that is required for HPC to continue to expand the boundaries of large-scale acoustic modeling. Some areas where emerging computational research is essential include
• The optimal use of GPU-based architectures with high-order finite elements;
• Continued development of GPU-aware multilevel domain decomposition and multigrid solvers for acoustics and structural acoustics problems;
• Advances in mesh creation for large-scale acoustics problems; and
• Advances in HPC for large-scale optimization (e.g., design and inverse problems) problems in structural acoustics, wherein the solution of the acoustics equa- tions is inside of an optimization loop.
Acknowledgments
Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission labora- tory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc., for the US Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Admin- istration under contract DE-NA0003525. This paper describes objective technical results and analysis. Any subjective views or opinions that might be expressed in the paper do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy or the United States Government. The capabilities reported herein are the work of many people including the authors, Nathan Crane, David Day, Sean Hardesty, Payton Lindsay, Lynn Munday, Kendall Pierson, Jerry Rouse, Scott Gampert, Ryan Schultz, Nich- olas Reynolds, Michael Miraglia, and Jonathan Stergiou.
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