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 About the Authors
 Wei Qiu
Auditory Research Laboratory State University of New York at Plattsburgh
101 Broad Street
Plattsburgh, New York, NY 12901, USA
Wei Qiu is a senior scientist and the director of the Auditory Research Laboratory, State University of New York at Plattsburgh. He is one of the researchers who originally introduced and developed the idea of using kurtosis as an index of the hazard to hearing from noise exposures. He published a series of articles exploring the use of the kurtosis metric to predict hearing damage in the animal and human models. As a member of the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and project leader, he is currently leading
a project to prepare for the revision of ISO 1999.
William J. Murphy
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
1090 Tusculum Avenue, MS C-27 Cincinnati, Ohio 45226-1998, USA
William J. Murphy is a Captain in the
United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and is coordinator for the Hearing Loss Prevention Cross-Sector Council for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. He is an active member of the National Hearing Conservation Association and a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). He is currently chair of the ASA American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Accredited Standards Committee S3 for Bioacoustics. He has provided leadership to the ASA as chair of the Technical Committee on Noise and through work with the national and
international standards on noise.
Alice Suter
Alice Suter and Associates 780 Oakway Circle
Ashland, Oregon 97520, USA
Alice Suter has been influential in noise criteria development, regulation, and public policy, first at the US Environmental
Protection Agency Office of Noise Abatement, later at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and then at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). At OSHA, she served as the principal author of the hearing conservation amendment to the noise standard. She holds fellowships in the American Speech-Language- Hearing Association and the Acoustical Society of America, from which she received the Distinguished Service Award. She lives in Ashland, OR, where she is unsuccessfully retired.
         International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 1999:2013. (2013). Acoustics – Estimation of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. ISO/ TC43-Acoustics. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
Lei, S. F., Ahroon, W. A., and Hamernik, R. P. (1994). The application of frequency and time domain kurtosis to the assessment of hazardous noise exposures. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of
America 96, 1435-1444.
Murphy, W. J. (2019). The effect of hearing protection on kurtosis. Proceedings of INTER-NOISE 2019, 48th International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering, Madrid, Spain, July 7-11,
2019. Available at
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). (1998). NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure, Revised Criteria 1998. NIOSH Publication No.
98-126, NIOSH, Cincinnati, OH. Available at
Qiu, W., Davis, R., and Hamernik, R. P. (2007). Hearing loss from interrupted, intermittent and time-varying Gaussian noise exposures: The applicability of the equal energy hypothesis. The
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 121, 1613-1620.
Qiu, W., Hamernik, R. P., and Davis, R. I. (2013). The value of a
kurtosis metric in estimating the hazard to hearing of complex industrial noise exposures. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of
America 133(5), 2856-2866. Suter, A. H. (2017). Occupational hearing loss from non-Gaussian noise.
Seminars in Hearing 38, 225-262. Taylor, W., Lempert, B., Pelmear, P., Hemstock, I., and Kershaw, J. (1984). Noise levels and hearing thresholds in the drop forging industry. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 76, 807-
von Gierke, H. E., Robinson, D., and Karmy, S. J. (1981) Results of the
Workshop on Impulse Noise and Auditory Hazards. Institute of Sound and Vibration Research (ISVR) Memorandum 618, ISVR, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
Xie, H. W., Qiu, W., Heyer, N. J., Zhang, M. B., Zhang, P., Zhao, Y. M., and Hamernik, R. P. (2016). The use of the kurtosis-adjusted cumulative noise exposure metric in evaluating the hearing loss risk for complex noise. Ear and Hearing 37, 312-323.
Zechmann, E. L. (2019). Characterization of noise with fractional-octave- band filters and the variance and kurtosis of the sound pressure,. PhD Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park. Available at
Zhang, M. B., Xie, H. W., Zhou, J. N., Sun, X., Hu, W., Zou, H., Zhou, L., Li, J., Zhang, M., Kardous, C. A., Morata, T. C., Murphy, W. J., Zhang, J. H., and Qiu, W. (2020). New metrics needed in the evaluation of hearing hazard associated with industrial noise exposure. Ear and Hearing, August 18, 2020 Publish Ahead of Print.
Zhao, Y. M., Qiu, W., Zeng, L., Chen, S. S., Cheng, X. R., Davis, R. I., and Hamernik, R. P. (2010). Application of the kurtosis statistic to the evaluation of the risk of hearing loss in workers exposed to High- level complex noise. Ear and Hearing 31, 527-532.
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