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Building 3 Sound Future fur Studenx
to individual work to small group activities. Each of these Hafarancaa
types of activity in an occupied active Classroom results in  
varying noise levels Produced  the occupanu ‘hemselvesp American National Standards Institute (ANSI). (2002). 512.60-2002
Acouitical Performance criteria Design Requirements. and Guidelines fur
Shield et al. (2015) have analyzed the relationship between M1005-AC0“5'-icfil 505393’ Omrnerieni Melville. NY.
occupied and unoccupied noise levels in secondary "(‘K:’S‘I7:S§;"$:fl:"$‘:“;g:g;‘::“t°/§f°';‘:°’}l S°"eW 
. . . - mus ica er ormance Tl eria, -
C]‘=‘55'°°m5- The?’ C°“d“C‘5d 3“ “°“5“C 5““'9Y °f 135 Sign Requirements and Guidelinesfur scliooh Part 1: Permanentscliools.
unoccupied secondary school classrooms in England and Acoustical Society of America, Melville, NY.
performed continuous monitoring during 247 occupied core Ammcan 5P€5Ch'1-a“E“3E€'H€3'i“£ A550€i=*‘i°n- (1995)- Guidelines in!
. . acoustics in educational environrnents. American Speech-Li1nglmge-Heizr-
subject lessons in 80 of those classrooms. Results confirmed l_ngAmCim_on 37 Suppl 14 1549
that the °b55“'5d “°i55 [W515 during 31555 15550115 in the Astolfi. A., and Pellerey,i=. (2008). subjective and objective assessnient of
occupied active classroom increased with the number of acoustical and overall environmental quality in secondary school class-
students and ms greater for rooms with younger students. :‘°"‘:d77f” :“2e8;‘6‘;’;‘3""“‘l 5"““7 "1 A"‘"“" 113* 163473-
C°“5‘5t°“‘ "id" the Shield “d D°‘k'°u (2003) 5‘“dY* Bislfigfsat S.o)::gnd bradley, 1. 5. (min). Reverbemtion tune and niaiciiiuiii
a significant relationship was found between the sound backgmund-noiselevelforclassmoi-nsfmi-nacori-ipamtive siudyofspeech
levels gathered during lessons (occupied active) and those in‘€l1iEil>i1i‘Y |'fl€UiC5- The 7W"“1l 0] ‘*9 Ammiml SVCWJ’ "I Amfricfl 107.
- - - - - 861-875.l1\ ://fl ‘. /lD.llZl/1.428268.
gathered in unoccupied conditions. Data on student learning Bomuw, P”':smlfi':':::gand Hmm, E II (zm7)_ Teachefi mining and EL
°“‘C°'“55 "5 “°‘ 5''‘°‘”“ in the Shield 5‘ 31- (2015) WP" lence periods during continuous speech in classrooiiis with ditferent re.
though. More analyses comparing student achievement verberation times. The Ioumizl of the Acoustical society of America 141,
against occupied versus unoccupied noise levels are needed, EL:l6'E]-31- l“(‘P5‘/ / ‘:05-0'8/1}?-1 121“/1-4b9fl73311 dl cl Th
. . Bra ey, 1. 5. 19826. speec inte igi 'ity stu 'es in assroorns. e
as P'°_s°'“ed _by Shmld md D°Ck'°" 0008)‘ If fife levels "‘ Iuumul of the Acouitical Society of America 84), 345-954. lmps://doi.
occupied active classrooms more strongly predict student ,,,gym_11zm_39390g_
learning outcomes than in unoccupied levels, then design Bradley, I. S., and Saio,I-I. (2008).T1ie intelligibility of speecliinelerneniary
standards should include some guidance, perhaps for noise :)l_;‘z‘;°;;l;‘65Sl:°°“‘/5/-d7’." 8-"3‘9"2"fl‘5“““l 595")’ 9] A"'5’'‘‘'W 123-
levels in occupied active classrooms as well as for ways Bmm;fl) A:  dfm ndnnm asatementpmgrm on mad_
to achieve 31056 r=C0mm=ud8ti0u5 to Olfitimile student ing ability Iuurmzl of Envirtmmentizl PS}/diulogy 1, 215.222. lmps://doi.
1ea_[ning_ org/10.1016/S0272-4944(fll)flD040-D.
larunirn, H., and zollinger, s. A. (2011). The evolution of the Lombard ef-
Steady-state noise sources like HVAC noise can be easy feet: 100 years of psyclioacoustic research. Behaviour 148, 1173-1198.
to quantify, predict, and measure, but it is important to WP‘//d°5-"YE/1“-1153/°“°579511X505759-

. . crandeli c. c., and snialdino, 1. 1. (zoom. classrooin acoustics for children
acknowledge that other, often times less predictable, sources Mm mmml hearing and Wm‘ healing impairmem Language spmh
Of 50"“ and fl0i55 "—Xi5t in 0CC“Pi5d “CW5 C1a551’°°m5 and Heizrl'ngService5 in sdioolsai, 362-370.littps://doi.orgIl0.l0;4/D1611
and can detrimentally interfere with communication 1461.3104.36z.
between teacher and student. Considerations for occupied H°dE5°“- M- Q999} ExP°'l’“5“‘31 3“V55‘3E’*‘i“n 9‘ ‘he 3°°“_5'-i€=*1€l_'i1'3€'

t. d.“ . C1 d h th d.“ f teristics of university classrooins. The Ioumizl ujrhe Acuushcul Suclety of
“C ‘V9 cm‘ ‘ ‘ms “‘ “5’°°'“5 ““ °‘” '3' ‘ 9' '°'“ America 106,1810-1819.https://doi.orgIl0.l121/1.427931.
“u0CC“Pi€d C°nditi0n5 need ‘O b5 ii"-°“8ht 0‘ h°]1'5‘iCa11Y- Hodgson, M., and Nosal, E. M. (2002). Etfect of noise and occupancy on
ongoing mom}, in this am win hopefully give us 3 better optinial reverberation tiiiies for speech intelligibility in classrooiiis. The
understanding of how all of the environmantal Condnions /uurnul of the Acuushcizl Society ofAmE1ici1 111, 931-939. litips://doi.

_ org/10.1121/1.1428264.
Work t°85‘h5' t0 3355‘ 5‘“d5“‘ “h‘5V"“5'“- Hodgson, M., York, N., Yang, w., and Bliss, M. (zoos). coniparison of
predicted rneasured and aumljzed sound fields with respect to speech
A‘=kna\~|adg'“anga in\‘gibi.lity‘in classrooms using CATT-Acoustic and O-DEON. Add
The authors are grateful ‘O the research team ::l:::81l:]rEt€d with Acustim 94, 883-890.
members from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Hum Q 5__'M,mm K L and plack C_ I_ (1010) umning ego“ 3‘ signal_
for their assistance with collecting and analyzing data to-noise iatiosthataretypital of the school dasrooin. ln1rmi1ti'imizl]uur11izI
(engineering‘unlledu/healthyfichools)I This study was u]Audl'olug)/49,928-932.litlpsz//t‘
. . _ Hunter, E. 1., and Titze, 1. R. (2010). variations in intensity, fundamental
supported by United States Environmental Protection . . . .
irequency, and Voicing for teachers in occupational veisus nonocci|pa-
Agency Grant 11835633. tional settings. Iuumul ofspeecn Limglmge and Hearing Research 53, 952.
975. l1ttps://t‘l0i.oi'gIl0.lU44/l092-43889009/D9-D040).
an 1 Aisiaunelrsn -rnissiy 1 riilzois

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