Multimedia 1: Vick-phonation.mp4 –
In this sample, the 2-month-old infant is vocalizing in a pseudo-dialogue with her mother. The productions sound like vowels, but there is no intentional shaping of the sound by the jaw, lips, or tongue. The resonance of the voice is nasal because of the anatomical configuration of the speech structures at birth.
Multimedia 2: Vick-gooing.mp4 –
In this sample, the infant is 3-months-old and vocalizations are shaped by rudimentary movements of the jaw, marking the first coordination of oral movements with vocalization. The elevation of the jaw brings the tongue to approximate the hard palate resulting in what sounds like consonant sounds.
Multimedia 3: Vick-expansion.mp4 –
In this sample, the 4-month-old infant is demonstrating the expansion stage of early vocalizations which is characterized by clearer vowel sounds and plenty of vocal play.
Multimedia 4: Vick-CanonicalBabble.mp4 –
The 6-month-old infant is producing typical canonical babbling, characterized by strings of repeated consonant-vowel vocalizations. In this case, the string is “mamama.” The articulation is driven by the elevation and depression of the lower jaw, which brings the lips together for the “m” sound and draws them apart for the “a” sound.
Multimedia 5: Vick-VareigatedBabbling.mp4
– In this sample, the 14-month-old toddler produces alternating strings of consonant-vowel units, such as “madadamada.” Vocal intensity is loud and unmodulated. The babble accompanies independent play.
Multimedia 6 – Vick – NoWords.mp4 –
In this sample, the 14-month-old toddler is using vowels combined with vocal frequency variation, facial expression, and gesture to communicate declaratives and questions. She does this in the absence of any speech-like shapes in her vocalizations, presumably using prosody and nonverbal strategies to communicate without facing constraints in speech motor control.
Multimedia 7: Vick – SiblingInfluence.mp4 –
In this sample, a 3-year-old toddler provides typical adult modeling and expansion to her 14-month-old sibling. With older siblings, there are additional language and speech models in the caregiving environment from which the developing infant and toddler can build mappings from production strategy to the output.